安全网 safety net
按可比口径 on comparable basis
按轻重缓急 to prioritize
暗补 implicit subsidy
暗亏 hidden loss

颁发营业执照 to license; to grant a licence to
办理存款业务 to take deposits
保护农民的生产积极性 to protect farmers' incentive to produce
备付金(超额准备金) excess reserves
本外币并账 consolidation of domestic and foreign currency accounts
本外币对冲操作 sterilization operation
本位利益 localized interest; departmentalism
奔小康 to strive to prosper;to strive to become well-to-do
避税(请见"逃税") tax avoidance
币种搭配不当 currency mismatch
币种构成 currency composition
变相社会集资 disguised irregular (or illegal) fund raising
表外科目(业务) off-balance-sheet items (operation)
薄弱环节 weaknesses; loopholes
不变成本 fixed cost
不变价 at constant price; in real terms
不动产 real estate
不良贷款(资产) problem loans; non-performing loans (assets)

财务公司 finance companies
财政赤字 fiscal deficit
财政挤银行 fiscal pressure on the central bank (over monetary policy)
财政政策与货币政策的配合 coordination of fiscal and monetary policies
采取循序渐进的方法 in a phased and sequenced manner
操作弹性 operational flexibility
操纵汇率 to manipulate exchange rate
产品构成 product composition; product mix
产品积压 stock pile; excessive inventory
产销率 current period inventory; (即期库存,不含前期库存) sales/outputratio
产销衔接 marketability
产业政策 industrial policy
长期国债 treasury bonds
敞口头寸 open position
炒股 to speculate in the stock market
承购包销 underwrite (securities)
成套机电产品 complete sets of equipment; complete plant (s)
城市信用社 urban credit cooperatives (UCCs)
城市合作银行 urban cooperative banks; municipal united banks
城市商业银行 municipal commercial banks
城乡居民收入增长超过物价涨幅 real growth in household income
持续升温 persistent overheating
重复布点 duplicate projects
重置成本 replacement cost
重组计划 restructuring plan
筹资渠道 funding sources; financing channels
初见成效 initial success
出口统一管理、归口经营 canalization of exports
出口退税 export tax rebate
储蓄存款 household deposits (不完全等同于西方的 savings deposits, 前者包括活期存款,后者不包括。)
储蓄分流 diversion of household deposits
储源萎缩 decline in the availability of household savings
传导机制 transmission mechanism
从价税 ad valorem tax
从紧控制 tight control
存贷款比例 loan/deposit ratio
存款保险体系 deposit insurance system
存款货币银行 deposit money banks
存款准备金 required reserves

打白条 issue IOU
大额存单 certificate of deposit (CD)
大额提现 withdraw deposits in large amounts
大面积滑坡 wide-spread decline
大一统的银行体制 (all-in-one) mono-bank system
呆账(请见"坏账") bad loans
呆账准备金 loan loss reserves (provisions)
呆滞贷款 idle loans
贷款沉淀 non-performing loans
贷款分类 loan classification
贷款限额管理 credit control; to impose credit ceiling
贷款约束机制 credit disciplinary (constraint) mechanism
代理国库 to act as fiscal agent
代理金融机构贷款 make loans on behalf of other institutions
戴帽贷款 ear-marked loans
倒逼机制 reversed transmission of the pressure for easing monetary condition
道德风险 moral hazard
地区差别 regional disparity
第一产业 the primary industry
第二产业 the secondary industry
第三产业 the service industry; the tertiary industry
递延资产 deferrable assets
订货不足 insufficient orders
定期存款 time deposits
定向募集 raising funds from targeted sources
东道国(请见"母国") host country
独立核算 independent accounting
短期国债 treasury bills
对冲操作 sterilization operation; hedging
对非金融部门债权 claims on non-financial sector
多种所有制形式 diversified ownership

恶性通货膨胀 hyperinflation
二级市场 secondary market

发行货币 to issue currency
发行总股本 total stock issue
法定准备金 required reserves; reserve requirement
法人股 institutional shares
法人股东 institutional shareholders
法治 rule of law
房地产投资 real estate investment
放松银根 to ease monetary policy
非现场稽核 off-site surveillance (or monitoring)
非银行金融机构 non-bank financial institutions
非赢利性机构 non-profit organizations
分税制 assignment of central and local taxes; tax assignment system
分业经营 segregation of financial business (services); division of business scope based on the type of financial institutions
风险暴露(风险敞口) risk exposure
风险管理 risk management
风险意识 risk awarenes
风险资本比例 risk-weighted capital ratios
风险资本标准 risk-based capital standard
服务事业收入 public service charges; user's charges
扶贫 poverty alleviation
负增长 negative growth
复式预算制 double-entry budgeting; capital and current budgetary account

改革试点 reform experimentation
杠杆率 leverage ratio
杠杆收购 leveraged buyout
高息集资 to raise funds by offering high interest
个人股 non-institutional shares
根本扭转 fundamental turnaround (or reversal)
公开市场操作 open market operations
公款私存 deposit public funds in personal accounts
公用事业 public utilities
公有经济 the state-owned sector; the public sector
公有制 public ownership
工业成本利润率 profit-to-cost ratio
工业增加值 industrial value added
供大于求 supply exceeding demand; excessive supply
鼓励措施 incentives
股份合作企业 joint-equity cooperative enterprises
股份制企业 joint-equity enterprises
股份制银行 joint-equity banks
固定资产贷款 fixed asset loans
关税减免 tariff reduction and exemption
关税减让 tariff concessions
关税优惠 tariff incentives; preferential tariff treatment
规范行为 to regularize (or standardize)...behavior
规模效益 economies of scale
国计民生 national interest and people's livelihood
国家对个人其他支出 other government outlays to individuals
国家风险 country risk
国际分工 international division of labor
国际收支 balance of payments
国有独资商业银行 wholly state-owned commercial banks
国有经济(部门) the state-owned (or public) sector
国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs)
国有制 state-ownership
国有资产流失 erosion of state assets
国债回购 government securities repurchase
国债一级自营商 primary underwriters of government securities
过度竞争 excessive competition
过度膨胀 excessive expansion
过热迹象 signs of overheating

合理预期 rational expectation
核心资本 core capital
合资企业 joint-venture enterprises
红利 dividend
宏观经济运营良好 sound macroeconomic performance
宏观经济基本状况 macroeconomic fundamentals
宏观调控 macroeconomic management (or adjustment)
宏观调控目标 macroeconomic objectives (or targets)
坏账 bad debt
还本付息 debt service
换汇成本 unit export cost;local currency cost of export earnings
汇兑在途 funds in float
汇兑支出 advance payment of remittance by the beneficiary's bank
汇率并轨 unification of exchange rates
活期存款 demand deposits
汇率失调 exchange rate misalignment
混合所有制 diversified (mixed) ownership
货币政策态势 monetary policy stance
货款拖欠 overdue obligations to suppliers
基本建设投资 investment in infrastructure
基本经济要素 economic fundamentals
基本适度 broadly appropriate
基准利率 benchmark interest rate
机关团体存款 deposits of non-profit institutions
机会成本 opportunity cost
激励机制 incentive mechanism
积压严重 heavy stockpile; excessive inventory
挤提存款 run on banks
挤占挪用 unwarranted diversion of (financial) resources(from designated uses)
技改投资 investment in technological upgrading
技术密集型产品 technology-intensive product
计划单列市 municipalities with independent planning status
计划经济 planned economy
集体经济 the collective sector
加大结构调整力度 to intensify structural adjustment
加工贸易 processing trade
加快态势 accelerating trend
加强税收征管稽查 to enhance tax administration
加权价 weighted average price
价格放开 price liberalization
价格形成机制 pricing mechanism
减亏 to reduce losses
简化手续 to cut red tape; to simplify (streamline) procedures
交投活跃 brisk trading
缴存准备金 to deposit required reserves
结构扭曲 structural distortion
结构失调 structural imbalance
结构性矛盾突出 acute structural imbalance
结构优化 structural improvement (optimization)
结汇、售汇 sale and purchase of foreign exchange
金融脆弱 financial fragility
金融动荡 financial turbulence
金融风波 financial disturbance
金融恐慌 financial panic
金融危机 financial crisis
金融压抑 financial repression
金融衍生物 financial derivatives
金融诈骗 financial fraud
紧缩银根 to tighten monetary policy
紧缩政策 austerity policies; tight financial policies
经常账户可兑换 current account convertibility
经济特区 special economic zones (SEZs)
经济体制改革 economic reform
经济增长方式的转变 change in the main source of economic growth (from investment expansion to efficiency gains)
经济增长减速 economic slowdown;moderation in economic growth
经济制裁 economic sanction
经营自主权 autonomy in management
景气回升 recovery in business activity
境外投资 overseas investment
竞争加剧 intensifying competition
局部性金融风波 localized (isolated) financial disturbance
开办人民币业务 to engage in RMB business
可维持(可持续)经济增长 sustainable economic growth
可变成本 variable cost
可自由兑换货币 freely convertible currency
控制现金投放 control currency issuance
扣除物价因素 in real terms; on inflation-adjusted basis
库存产品 inventory
跨国银行业务 cross-border banking
跨年度采购 cross-year procurement
会计准则 accounting standard

来料加工 processing of imported materials for export
离岸银行业务 off-shore banking (business)
理顺外贸体制 to rationalize foreign trade regime
利率杠杆的调节作用 the role of interest rates in resource allocation
利润驱动 profit-driven
利息回收率 interest collection ratio
联行清算 inter-bank settlement
连锁企业 franchise (businesses); chain businesses
良性循环 virtuous cycle
两极分化 growing income disparity;polarization in income distribution
零售物价指数 retail price index (RPI)
流动性比例 liquidity ratio
流动资产周转率/流通速度 velocity of liquid assets
流动资金贷款 working capital loans
流通体制 distribution system
流通网络 distribution network
留购(租赁期满时承租人可购买租赁物) hire purchase
垄断行业 monopolized industry (sector)
乱集资 irregular (illegal) fund raising
乱收费 irregular (illegal) charges
乱摊派 unjustified (arbitrary) levies

买方市场 buyer's market
卖方市场 seller's market
卖出回购证券 matched sale of repo
贸易差额 trade balance
民间信用 non-institutionalized credit
免二减三 exemption of income tax for the first two years of making profit and 50% tax reduction for the following three years
明补 explicit subsidy
明亏 explicit loss
名牌产品 brand products
母国(请见"东道国") home country

内部控制 internal control
内部审计 internal audit
内地与香港 the mainland and Hong Kong
内债 domestic debt
扭亏为盈 to turn a loss-making enterprise into a profitable one
扭曲金融分配 distorted allocation of financial resources
农副产品采购支出 outlays for agricultural procurement
农村信用社 rural credit cooperatives (RCCs)

泡沫效应 bubble effect
泡沫经济 bubble economy
培育新的经济增长点 to tap new sources of economic growth
片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth
平衡发展 balanced development
瓶颈制约 bottleneck (constraints)
平稳回升 steady recovery
铺底流动资金 initial (start-up) working capital
普遍回升 broad-based recovery
配套改革 concomitant (supporting) reforms
配套人民币资金 local currency funding of...

企业办社会 enterprises burdened with social responsibilities
企业集团战略 corporate group strategy
企业兼并重组 company merger and restructuring
企业领导班子 enterprise management
企业所得税 enterprise (corporate) income tax
企业效益 corporate profitability
企业资金违规流入股市 irregular flow of enterprise funds into the stock market
欠税 tax arrears
欠息 overdue interest
强化税收征管 to strengthen tax administration
强制措施 enforcement action
翘尾因素 carryover effect
切一刀 partial application
清理收回贷款 clean up and recover loans
(破产)清算 liquidation
倾斜政策 preferential policy
区别对待 differential treatment
趋势加强 intensifying trend
全球化 globalization
权益回报率 returns on equity (ROE)
缺乏后劲 unsustainable momentum

绕规模贷款 to circumvent credit ceiling
人均国内生产总值 per capita GDP
人均收入 per capita income
人民币升值压力 upward pressure on the Renminbi (exchange rate)
认缴资本 subscribed capital
软贷款 soft loans
软预算约束 soft budget constraint
软着陆 soft landing

三角债 chain debts; inter-enterprise arrears
善政廉政 good governance
商业贷款 commercial loans
上市公司 (publicly) listed corporations
设备利用 capacity utilization
社会保障 social safety net; social security (insurance)
深层次矛盾 deep-rooted structural imbalance
审批金融机构 to license financial institutions
审慎监管 prudential supervision
生产能力闲置 unutilized capacity
生息资产 interest-bearing assets
实际利用外资 disbursement of foreign capital;actual inflow of foreign investment
实际有效汇率 real effective exchange rate
实时 real time
实收资本 paid-in capital
实现利润 realized profit
市场分割 market segmentation
市场经济 market economy
市场占有率(市场份额) market share
市场准入 market access (指商品和劳务的进入);market entry (指机构的审批)
市价总值 market capitalization
适度从紧 appropriately tight
适时调节 timely adjustment
收回对金融机构贷款 to recall central bank loans (to financial institutions)
税后还贷 amortization (repayment of loans) after tax
税收流失 tax erosion
税源不足 weak tax base
私营经济(私人经济) the private sector
私有制 private ownership
所有者权益 owner's equity

逃税(请见"避税") tax evasion
套汇 (1)指合法:currency swap; arbitrage
(2)指非法:illegal purchase of foreign exchange
剔除季节性因素 seasonally adjusted
调节流动性 to influence liquidity level
贴现窗口 discount window
同比 on year-on-year basis;over the same period of the previous year
同业拆借(放) inter-bank borrowing (lending)
同业拆借市场利率(中国) CHIBOR (China inter-bank offered rate)
同业融通票据 inter-bank financing bills
同业往来 inter-bank transactions
透支 overdraft
退税 tax refund (rebate)
头寸 position
吞吐基础货币 adjustment of monetary base
脱媒现象 disintermediation

外部审计 external audit
外国直接投资 foreign direct investment (FDI)
外汇储备 foreign exchange reserves
外汇调剂 foreign exchange swap
外汇占款 the RMB counterpart of foreign exchange reserves;the RMB equivalent of offcial foreign exchange holdings
外向型经济 export-oriented economy
外债 external debt
外资企业 foreign-funded enterprises
完善现代企业制度 to improve the modern enterprise system
完税凭证 tax payment documentation
违法经营 illegal business
委托存款 entrusted deposits
稳步增长 steady growth
稳健的银行系统 a sound banking system
稳中求进 to make progress while ensuring stability
无纸交易 book-entry (or paperless/scriptless) transaction
物价监测 price monitoring

吸纳流动性 to absorb liquidity
稀缺经济 scarcity economy
洗钱 money laundering
系统内调度 fund allocation within a bank
系统性金融危机 systemic financial crisis
下岗工人 laid-off employees
下游企业 down-stream enterprises
现场稽核 on-site examination
现金滞留(居民手中) cash held outside the banking system
乡镇企业 township and village enterprises (TVEs)
消费物价指数 consumer price index (CPI)
消费税 excise (consumption) tax
消灭财政赤字 to balance the budget; to eliminate fiscal deficit
销货款回笼 reflow of corporate sales income to the banking system
销售平淡 lackluster sales
协议外资金额 committed amount of foreign investment
新经济增长点 new sources of economic growth
新开工项目 new projects; newly started projects
新增贷款 incremental credit; loan increment; credit growth;credit expansion
新增就业位置 new jobs; new job opportunities
信贷规模考核 review the compliance with credit ceilings
信号失真 distorted signals
信托投资公司 trust and investment companies
信息不对称 information asymmetry
信息反馈 feedback (information)
信息共享系统 information sharing system
信息披露 information disclosure
信用扩张 credir expansion
信用评级 credit rating
姓"资"还是姓"社" pertaining to socialism or capitalism; socialist or captialist
行政措施 administrative measures
需求膨胀 demand expansion; excessive demand
虚伪存款 window-dressing deposits
削减冗员 to shed excess labor force
寻租 rent seeking
迅速反弹 quick rebound

养老基金 pension fund
一刀切 universal application; non-discretionary implementation
一级市场 primary market
应收未收利息 overdue interest
银行网点 banking outlets
赢利能力 profitability
营业税 business tax
硬贷款(商业贷款) commercial loans
用地审批 to grant land use right
有管理的浮动汇率 managed floating exchange rate
证券投资 portfolio investment
游资(热钱) hot money
有市场的产品 marketable products
有效供给 effective supply
诱发新一轮经济扩张 trigger a new round of economic expansion
逾期贷款 overdue loans; past-due loans
与国际惯例接轨 to become compatible with internationally accepted practices
与国际市场接轨 to integrate with the world market
预算外支出(收入) off-budget (extra-budgetary) expenditure (revenue)
预调 pre-emptive adjustment
月环比 on a month-on-month basis; on a monthly basis

再贷款 central bank lending
在国际金融机构储备头寸 reserve position in international financial institutions
在人行存款 deposits at (with) the central bank
在途资金 fund in float
增加农业投入 to increase investment in agriculture
增势减缓 deceleration of growth; moderation of growth momentum
增收节支措施 revenue-enhancing and expenditure control measures
增长平稳 steady growth
增值税 value-added tax (VAT)
涨幅偏高 higher-than-desirable growth rate; excessive growth
账外账 concealed accounts
折旧 depreciation
整顿 retrenchment; consolidation
政策工具 policy instrument
政策性业务 policy-related operations
政策性银行 policy banks
政策组合 policy mix
政府干预 government intervention
证券交易清算 settlement of securities transactions
证券业务占款 funding of securities purchase
支付困难 payment difficulty
支付能力 payment capacity
直接调控方式向 to increase the reliance on indirect policy instruments
职能转换 transformation of functions
职业道德 professional ethics
指令性措施 mandatory measures
指令性计划 mandatory plan; administered plan
制定和实施货币政策 to conduct monetary policy; to formulate and implement monetary policy
滞后影响 lagged effect
中介机构 intermediaries
中央与地方财政 delineation of fiscal responsibilities
分灶吃饭重点建设 key construction projects; key investment project
周期谷底 bottom (trough) of business cycle
周转速度 velocity
主办银行 main bank
主权风险 sovereign risk
注册资本 registered capital
逐步到位 to phase in; phased implementation
逐步取消 to phase out
抓大放小 to seize the big and free the small (to maintain close oversight on the large state-ownedenterprises and subject smaller ones to market competition)
专款专用 use of funds as ear-marked
转贷 on-lending
转轨经济 transition economy
转机 turnaround
转折关头 turning point
准财政赤字 quasi-fiscal deficit
准货币 quasi-money
资本不足 under-capitalized
资本充足率 capital adequacy ratio
资本利润率 return on capital
资本账户可兑换 capital account convertibility
资不抵债 insolvent; insolvency
资产负债表 balance sheet
资产负债率 liability/asset ratio; ratio of liabilities to assets
资产集中 asset concentration
资产贡献率 asset contribution factor
资产利润率 return on assets (ROA)
资产质量 asset quality
资产组合 asset portfolio
资金成本 cost of funding; cost of capital; financing cost
资金到位 fully funded (project)
资金宽裕 to have sufficient funds
资金利用率 fund utilization rate
资金缺口 financing gap
资金体外循环 financial disintermediation
资金占压 funds tied up
自筹投资项目 self-financed projects
自有资金 equity fund
综合国力 overall national strength (often measured by GDP)
综合效益指标 overall efficiency indicator
综合治理 comprehensive adjustment (retrenchment); over-haul
总成交额 total contract value
总交易量 total amount of transactions
总成本 total cost
最后贷款人 lender of last resort


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